August 7, 2020 By RJ

 Black Hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light can not get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying. Because no light can get out, people can’t see black holes. Located about 32 million light-years from Earth in the Messier 74 galaxy (M74), this object emits periodic bursts of x-rays at a rate that suggests it is much larger than a stellar-mass black hole but significantly smaller than the supermassive black holes found at the centers of galaxies

black hole
Black Hole

What Are Black Holes?

These are volumes of space where gravity is extreme enough to prevent the escape of even the fastest moving particles. Not even light can break free, hence the name ‘black’ hole.

How do black holes form?

  • It’s generally accepted that stars with a mass at least three times greater than that of our Sun’s can undergo extreme gravitational collapse once their fuel depletes.
  • With so much mass in a confined volume, the collective force of gravity overcomes the rule that usually keeps the building blocks of atoms from occupying the same space. All this density creates a black hole.
  • A second type of miniature BH has been hypothesised, though never observed. They’re thought to have formed when the rippling vacuum of the early Universe rapidly expanded in an event known as inflation, causing highly dense regions to collapse.
  • Called primordial BH , they’d have a smaller mass – some even close to that of Earth – but would be little bigger than a jelly bean.

Three Types of Black Hole

Stellar Black Hole – Small but Deadly :

  • When a star burns through the last of its fuel, the object may collapse, or fall into itself. For smaller stars (those up to about three times the sun’s mass), the new core will become a neutron star or a white dwarf. But when a larger star collapses, it continues to compress and creates a stellar black hole.
  • It is formed by the collapse of individual stars are relatively small, but incredibly dense. One of these objects packs more than three times the mass of the sun into the diameter of a city. This leads to a crazy amount of gravitational force pulling on objects around the object. Stellar holes then consume the dust and gas from their surrounding galaxies, which keeps them growing in size
black hole
Stellar Black Hole

Suppermassive Black Hole – The Birth of Giant :

  • Small holes populate the universe, but their cousins, supermassive black holes, dominate. These enormous holes are millions or even billions of times as massive as the sun, but are about the same size in diameter. Such holes are thought to lie at the center of pretty much every galaxy, including the Milky Way.
  • Supermassive holes may be the result of hundreds or thousands of tiny BH that merge together. Large gas clouds could also be responsible, collapsing together and rapidly accreting mass. A third option is the collapse of a stellar cluster, a group of stars all falling together.
  • Fourth, supermassive holes could arise from large clusters of dark matter. This is a substance that we can observe through its gravitational effect on other objects; however, we don’t know what dark matter is composed of because it does not emit light and cannot be directly observed.
black hole
Suppermassive Black Hole

Intermediate Black Hole – Stuck in the Middle :

  • Intermediate bodies could form when stars in a cluster collide in a chain reaction. Several of these Intermediate hole’s forming in the same region could then eventually fall together in the center of a galaxy and create a supermassive hole.
  • IMBHs may exist in the heart of dwarf galaxies (or very small galaxies). Observations of 10 such galaxies (five of which were previously unknown to science before this latest survey) revealed X-ray activity — common in black holes(BH) suggesting the presence of BH of from 36,000 to 316,000 solar masses.
black hole
Intermediate Black Hole

What do Black Hole looks like?

  • It have three “layers”: the outer and inner event horizon, and the singularity.
  • The event horizon of a BH is the boundary around the mouth of the it, past which light cannot escape. Once a particle crosses the event horizon, it cannot leave. Gravity is constant across the event horizon.
  • The inner region of a BH, where the object’s mass lies, is known as its singularity, the single point in space-time where the mass of the BH is concentrated.

Weird facts about black holes

  • If you fell into a black hole(BH), theory has long suggested that gravity would stretch you out like spaghetti, though your death would come before you reached the singularity.
  • They don’t suck. Suction is caused by pulling something into a vacuum, which the massive BH definitely is not. Instead, objects fall into them just as they fall toward anything that exerts gravity, like the Earth.
  • The first object considered to be a BH is Cygnus X-1.
  • Miniature holes may have formed immediately after the Big Bang. Rapidly expanding space may have squeezed some regions into tiny, dense BH less massive than the sun.
  • If a star passes too close to a it, the star can be torn apart.
  • Astronomers estimate that the Milky Way has anywhere from 10 million to 1 billion stellar BH, with masses roughly three times that of the sun.