Crowdsourcing .December 31, 2020
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services, including ideas, voting, micro-tasks and finances, from a large, relatively open and often rapidly evolving group of participants. Currently, crowdsourcing typically involves using the internet to attract and divide work between participants to achieve a cumulative result. The word crowdsourcing itself is a portmanteau of crowd and outsourcing, and was coined in 2006.
The term “crowdsourcing” was coined in 2005 by Jeff Howe and Mark Robinson, editors at Wired, to describe how businesses were using the Internet to “outsource work to the crowd”. which quickly led to the portmanteau “crowdsourcing”. Howe first published a definition for the term crowdsourcing in a companion blog post to his June 2006 Wired article, “The Rise of Crowdsourcing”, which came out in print just days later:
Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call. This can take the form of peer-production (when the job is performed collaboratively), but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers.
In a February 1, 2008, article, Daren C. Brabham, “the first [person] to publish scholarly research using the word crowdsourcing” and writer of the 2013 book Crowdsourcing, defined it as an “online, distributed problem-solving and production model”. Kristen L. Guth and Brabham found that the performance of ideas offered in crowdsourcing platforms are affected not only by their quality, but also by the communication among users about the ideas, and presentation in the platform itself.