Sex assignment .January 13, 2021
Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the discernment of an infant’s sex at birth. Assignment may be done prior to birth through prenatal sex discernment. In the majority of births, a relative, midwife, nurse or physician inspects the genitalia when the baby is delivered, and sex is assigned, without the expectation of ambiguity.
Sex assignment at birth usually aligns with a child’s anatomical sex and phenotype. The number of births where the baby is intersex – where they do not fit into typical definitions of male and female – has been reported to be as low as 0.018% up to roughly 1.7%, depending on which conditions are counted as intersex. The number of births with ambiguous genitals is in the range of 0.02% to 0.05%. These conditions may complicate sex assignment. Other intersex conditions involve atypical chromosomes, gonads or hormones. Reinforcing sex assignments through surgical or hormonal interventions is often considered to violate the individual’s human rights.
Assigned male at birth (AMAB): a person of any age and irrespective of current gender whose sex assignment at birth resulted in a declaration of “male”. For example, when an attending midwife or physician announces, “It’s a boy!” Synonyms: male assigned at birth (MAAB) and designated male at birth (DMAB).
In European societies, Roman law, post-classical Canon law, and later Common law, referred to a person’s sex as male, female or hermaphrodite, with legal rights as male or female depending on the characteristics that appeared most dominant. Under Roman law, a hermaphrodite had to be classed as either male or female. The 12th-century Decretum Gratiani states that “Whether an hermaphrodite may witness a testament, depends on which sex prevails”
Further information: Intersex human rights
Controversies over surgical aspects of intersex management, have often focused on controversies regarding indications for surgery and optimal timing. However, intersex and human rights organizations have criticized medical models as they are not based on the consent of the individuals on whom such irreversible medical treatments are conducted, and outcomes may be inappropriate or poor. Anne Tamar-Mattis, for example, states that, “The true choice is not between early and late [surgery], but early surgery versus patient autonomy.
Reassignment of sex or gender :