Sexual Reproduction .

January 13, 2021 By Swapnil Suryawanshi

Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that involves a complex life cycle in which a gamete (such as a sperm or egg cell) with a single set of chromosomes (haploid) combines with another to produce an organism composed of cells with two sets of chromosomes (diploid). Sexual reproduction is the most common life cycle in multicellular eukaryotes, such as animalsfungi and plants. Sexual reproduction does not occur in prokaryotes (organisms without cell nuclei), but they have processes with similar effects such as bacterial conjugationtransformation and transduction, which may have been precursors to sexual reproduction in early eukaryotes.

Bacteria and archaea :

Three distinct processes in prokaryotes are regarded as similar to eukaryotic sexbacterial transformation, which involves the incorporation of foreign DNA into the bacterial chromosome; bacterial conjugation, which is a transfer of plasmid DNA between bacteria, but the plasmids are rarely incorporated into the bacterial chromosome; and gene transfer and genetic exchange in archaea.

Ferns :

Ferns mostly produce large diploid sporophytes with rhizomes, roots and leaves. Fertile leaves produce sporangia that contain haploid spores. The spores are released and germinate to produce short, thin gametophytes that are typically heart shaped, small and green in color. The gametophyte thalli, produce both motile sperm in the antheridia and egg cells in archegonia on the same or different plants.

Flowering plants :

Flowers are the sexual organs of flowering plants.

Flowering plants are the dominant plant form on land and they reproduce either sexually or asexually. Often their most distinguishing feature is their reproductive organs, commonly called flowers. The anther produces pollen grains which contain the male gametophytes that produce sperm nuclei. For pollination to occur, pollen grains must attach to the stigma of the female reproductive structure (carpel).

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