Since January 1950 – The Great Uttar Pradesh.August 21, 2020
On January 26, 1950, when India became a republic, the state was given its present name, Uttar Pradesh (literally, “Northern State”). Its capital is Lucknow, in the west-central part of the state. Area 93,933 square miles (243,286 square km).
It largely consists of a fertile plain which is featureless, and varies in elevation, rising up to 300 metres in the northwest, and 60 metres in the extreme east. It is composed of alluvial deposits which are brought down by the Ganga and its tributaries from the Himalayas.
Districts and Administration of Uttar Pradesh:
Uttar Pradesh is divided into 75 Districts and 18 Divisions. Each district is governed by a District Collector or a District Magistrate.
Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and plays a significant role in defining the present day Uttar Pradesh. The history of Uttar Pradesh can be traced back to the Aryan period when they arrived and started establishing settlements in the central country, which they called “Madhyadesh”. It was ruled by numerous kingdoms in history. It saw the advent of Lord Buddha, around the middle of the 1st millennium BC, who spread the Buddhism religion. Lord Buddha delivered his first sermon in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh. During this time the region was under the Magadha rule. The rule subsequently moved on to the Nanda dynasty and then later to the Mauryas.
The historical background of the state is associated a lot with the beginning of the Muslim rule. This period saw the defeat of the Rajputs. The state’s prosperity was at its peak during the Mughal rule, especially during the rule of Emperor Akbar. During the Mughal rule, the region saw the construction of some magnificent monuments whose names have been engraved in the history forever.
As time went by, Uttar Pradesh saw the decline of Mughal rule and the beginning of the British rule. The influence of Mughals was limited to the Doab region. The state of Uttar Pradesh had a significant role in the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. A number of kingdoms have reigned over the state of Uttar Pradesh.
Facts on Uttar Pradesh:
|Date of Formation||January 1950|
|Area||240,928 sq km|
|Total Population (2011)||199,812,341|
|Males Population (2011)||104,480,510|
|Females Population (2011)||95,331,831|
|No. of District||75|
|Religions||Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism.|
|Rivers||Ganges, Yamuna, Sarayu, Gomti, Ramganga|
|Forests & National Park||Dudhwa NP, Kishanpur WS, Katarniaghat WS, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary etc.|
|Languages||Hindi, Urdu, English, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Braj etc.|
|Neighbours State||Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar.|
|State Animal||Swamp Deer|
|State Bird||Sarus crane|
|State Sport||Field hockey|
|Net State Domestic Product (2011)||26355|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||77.08%|
|Females per 1000 males||908|
Agriculture is the main occupation of 66 per cent of the population of the State. The net cultivated area in the state is 164.17 lakh hectares.
There were 6,12,338 Small Scale Industries with involving a total investment of 7172 crore, as per earlier records.
Under the public sector, mining of limestone, magnesite, coal, rock phosphate, dolomite and silicon-sand is carried out. The bulk production of minor and some of the major minerals like limestone, silica-sand, magnesite, pyrophyllite and diaspore is mostly with the private sector. Important mineral based industries include large cement plants in Sonebhadra.
Roads: The total road length of PWD in the State is 146728 km. This includes 3820 km of national highways, 8391 km of state highways, 119726 of other district roads and 134517 km of rural roads.
Railways: Lucknow is the main junction of the northern network. Other important railway junctions are Agra, Kanpur, Allahabad, Mughalsarai, Jhansi, Moradabad, Varanasi, Tundla, Gorakhpur, Gonda, Faizabad, Bareilly and Sitapur.
Aviation: There are airports at Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi, Bareilly, Hindon (Ghaziabad), Gorakhpur, Sarsawa (Saharanpur) and Fursatganj (Rae-Barelli).
Kumbh Mela, Allahabad
The biggest congregation, perhaps of the world, Kumbha Mela is held at Allahabad every twelfth year and Ardh kumbh Mela every sixth year. Magh Mela is also held at Allahabad in January when the people come in large number to have a dip in the holy Sangam.
Among other fairs is the fortnight long Jhoola fair of Mathura, Vrindavan and Ayodhya, when dolls are placed in gold and silver jhoolas or cradles. A dip in the Ganga on Kartik Poornamasi is supposed to be the holiest and there are big congregations at Garhmukteshwar, Soran, Rajghat, Kakora, Bithur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi and Ayodhya. A famous cattle fair is held at Bateswar in Agra district.
Dewa in Barabanki district has became famous because of the Muslim saint Waris Ali Shah. Besides, important festivals of the Hindus, Muslims, etc., are widely celebrated in the State.
The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Uttar Pradesh has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques. The Awadhi cuisine of Uttar Pradesh bears similarities to those of Kashmir and Punjab, and the state is famous for its Nawabi foods(of Lucknow and environs) and use of mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and saffron. Its most famous dishes include kebabs, Dum Biryani, and various Mutton recipes. The Chaat, samosa and pakora, among the most popular snacks in all of India, are also originally from Uttar Pradesh. Awadhi is a type of West-Central Uttar Pradeshi cuisine found in the state’s Awadh Region. Mughlai cuisine is also integral to Western and Central Uttar Pradesh’s cuisine.
Lucknow, capital city of Uttar Pradesh is a heaven for food lovers because of the sheer range of variety available there… Lucknow, before being seat of Nawabs (Kings) of Awadh region, is the birth place famous Awadhi cuisine. It is where you can find refined Muslim Indian food. Be sure to visit Old Lucknow where it’s normal to have eateries which are 150-200 years old serving Famed Lucknowi Biryani(mutton & Basmati rice preparation with exotic herbs), Nehari, Kulcha, Sheermal etc. Varanasi is another city where people live for eating, but more famous for Hindu Vegetarian styles which include chaat, tikki,kachori, etc.
Taj Mahal, Agra
Uttar Pradesh has varied attractions for all kinds of tourists. Besides ancient places of pilgrimage like Varanasi, Vindhyachal, Ayodhya, Chitrakoot, Prayag, Naimisharanya, Mathura, Vrindavan, Dewa Sharief, Dargah of Sheikh Saleem Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri, Sarnath, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Sankisa, Kampil, Piprahwa and Kaushambi, places like Agra, Ayodhya, Sarnath, Varanasi, Lucknow, Jhansi, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kannauj, Mahoba, Devgarh, Bithur, and Vindhyachal have rich treasures of Hindu and Islamic architecture and culture.